7 Important Land Documents You Should Know

Land original documents you should know

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Your original land documents determine how valuable and how secure your land is in the present age. Buying land is challenging due to some seen or unseen circumstances surrounding land purchases in Nigeria. Sometimes, people overlook the necessity of land documents in Lagos, Abuja, and other parts of the country because of their eagerness to build on the land they purchase. To avoid immediate or future embarrassment, it is essential to back up your land with genuine land documents and titles. Whether you are buying land on your own or with a real estate company, it is beneficial to be aware of genuine land titles in Nigeria and their meaning, land document details, and also the purpose of each land document.

What is Land Documentation?

Land documentation is the document or instrument that ascertains or confirms the ownership or transfer of ownership of landed property in Nigeria. The official evidence that shows a land belongs to you is the original Land Document.

The genuineness of the original land document is one of the factors that determine how valuable and important land is.

Importance of Land Documentation

Whether you want to use the landed property for residential, commercial, or farming purposes, it is expedient that you know the types of land ownership documents and the importance your land document carries. We have put together some importance you need to know.

1. Genuine and original land documents give buyers the confidence and peace to utilize the land for their desired purposes.

2. Whenever there is any future crisis on the land, the genuine and original land documents will allow you to win the case in the court of law.

3. Verified and original land documents can be used as collateral in any financial institution and defend you against land grabbers and scammers in Nigeria.

4. Genuine and original land documents make the land valuable and worth more. It also helps you ease the facilitation of resale of the land when you want to sell.

5. Original land documents give the government cause to do necessary compensation for the landowner if the land is later compulsorily acquired by the government.

7 Important and Original Land Documents You Should Know Before You Buy Land in Nigeria

We have compiled the seven land documents recognized by the government and generally acceptable for any landed property transactions.

1.    Receipt of purchase

A receipt of purchase is proof of payment for a land purchase. It shows clearly that the seller received money from the buyer. A receipt of purchase is not a bad idea, but it is not enough to prove land ownership.

2.    Contract Of Sale

A contract of sale is a land document that shows the agreement between the seller and the buyer. It shows you the selling price and the payment schedule, and it also helps regulate any price fluctuation.

The buyer should take note of the contract of sale if the payment is in installments. An agreement of purchase is essential to avoid inflation on the land price before completing the stated price.

3.    The Deed Of Assignment

It is the main document between the seller and buyer to show evidence of ownership to favour the buyer. A deed of assignment is an official document dealing with transferring ownership from one person to another.

4.    A Certificate Of Occupancy (C of O)

A certificate of occupancy is generally called ‘C of O’. It is the authentication of land ownership given by the government to the landowner. A certificate of occupancy is a written document issued by a government agency certifying that a building is acceptable for occupancy under law. A certificate of occupancy specifies a property’s permitted use and its permitted occupancy allowance.

5.    Gazette

The Gazette is a Government official book of record of urban land in a state. It gives a permanent official record of required notices that support legal processes and serves as a means of advertisement to the public. It is an official document that records the area government has given out to a community, family, or individual to possess without the government intervening in such areas again.

6.    A Survey Plan

A Survey Plan is an official document that measures and examines the map of the land to give a perfect measurement and description of such land. Registered Surveyors under Government handle survey issues.

A land transaction is considered legal in law when the buyer gets the Governor’s Consent, i.e., if a buyer buys the land from someone, which makes the buyer, not the first owner. The Governor’s Consent is the approval given by a state governor or his representative in a transaction that has to do with the ownership’s transfer or other interests overland to make the transaction valid by law.

Processes of genuine and original land documents   

Some processes are involved in getting genuine and original land documents that will fully certify the buyer as the owner.

  • A written document should prove the agreed negotiation on where the buyer wants to buy and the amount the buyer wants to pay.
  • A purchase receipt should follow after the buyer has paid for the land, and the receipt must show what was paid for, the buyer’s name, the seller’s name, and the time it was paid. If you are buying from a family, the purchase receipts must bear the family details, i.e., the family name, address, proper attestation, etc.
  • The next thing is an agreement between the seller and the buyer, in which the terms and conditions of the transaction will be stated. Both parties should sign the agreement (the seller and the buyer).
  • The concluding stage of getting genuine land documentation is to register under the government law and policies. The government will verify the land title. Stamp duty payment and other fixed charges will be paid to the government to issue a Certificate of Occupancy (C of O) after the government has verified the land title.

Engaging a legal practitioner’s service is very important to ensure that you have genuine and original land documents for the land you purchase. It will make other documents from the government easier to get.


Hopefully, you have seen reasons to have genuine and original land documents, and the purpose of each document has been critically examined. Getting your land properly documented will save you from embarrassment and give you peace of mind over the land.

Make your land valuable and secure by undergoing the processes involved in documenting your land. Land ownership and documentation are authenticated in Nigeria by doing the seven listed above.

Would you want to free yourself from buying land that will put you in trouble sooner or later?

Real Estate PPT and Services Company Ltd is more than capable of helping you to buy a verified and secure land. We will also help you ease the processes of registering and getting the original land documents.

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